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Typology on Entrepreneurship Support in Emerging Markets

Journal of Entrepreneurship & Management

Volume 6 Issue 3

Published: 2017
Author(s) Name: Iftekhar Ul Karim | Author(s) Affiliation: ULAB School of Business, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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In the backdrop of role of business in poverty alleviation, stimulating entrepreneurship by involving the entrepreneurs in forming their ventures has been considered fruitful. In doing so, the crucial factor remains the underlying heterogeneity of entrepreneurs due to their arrays of business requirements to cater to miscellaneous market segments and niches. In this context, the first section delves into the phenomenon of supporting the diversified start-up entrepreneurs (SEs) with their intensely different start-up needs, wants and desires, and focuses on how diversity of entrepreneurship demands diversified services as well. This leads to the broader scenario of why and how the entrepreneurship support centres (ESCs) develop and change keeping pace with the growing or changing requirements and environments of the start-up entrepreneurs (SEs). Subsequently, section one reveals the underlying research question of the study focusing on the ESCs dealing and configuring with the heterogeneous start-up entrepreneurs (SEs). The study aimed at developing a typology on the entrepreneurship support centres (ESCs) facilitating services for heterogeneous start-up entrepreneurs (SEs) focusing on the services of ESCS, particularly from the perspective of their configurations. In this context, the general research question explored different configurations of the entrepreneurship support centres (ESCs) facilitating services for heterogeneous start-up entrepreneurs (SEs). Adopting a systematic literature review, section two critically reviews a number of relevant papers extracted from the scientific and scholarly databases with regard to entrepreneurship support. Pinpointing theoretical perspectives from several contemporary angles, it reports the state-of-the-art knowledge in supporting the multifaceted entrepreneurship and dynamic start-up entrepreneurs. Spanning from the most obvious to the most cutting-edge ones, this section highlights works on the following theoretical perspectives: knowledge-based and resource-based views, social capital theory, social learning theory, theory of planned behaviour, theory of growth of the firm, Uppsala model of international entrepreneurship, theory of cultural dimensions, and market orientation. The research has been conducted in the context of Bangladesh due to relevant ground of the study, furthermore, it is angled from the perspective of BiD Network Foundation which contributes to sustainable economic growth in emerging countries through entrepreneurship. Based on this notion, section three elaborates the research context where Bangladesh is an interesting zone for BiD Network and helping the ESCs and SEs of Bangladesh has turned out to be a challenge for it. Thereby, in terms of the methodological aspects of the research, followed by an extensive web search and other contacts, a number of potential ESCs, SEs and entrepreneurship consultants in Bangladesh were selected accordingly. As the nature of the study is qualitative and the underlying approach is theory building, thereby case-by-case in-depth interviews were spotted as the most suitable data collection means. For the analysis, the raw data have been analysed checking the interviews and were organised into a tabular study in a comparative format. Consequently in section four, the results have been arranged into parts reflecting upon the research questions of this study, and critically analysing the results attempting to answer the research questions chronologically, and thereby leading to the developed theoretical model. Based on the local expert advice of the entrepreneurship support centres (ESCs) and in consultation with the entrepreneurship consultants (ECs), three groups among the start-up entrepreneurs (SEs) in Bangladesh were distinguished: G1 type of young SEs, G2 type of child SEs, and G3 type of aged SEs. It can be said that although their needs and requirements revolve around few similar areas, i.e. funding, networking, training etc., nevertheless the nature of needs for each of the G1 type of young SEs, G2 type of child SEs, and G3 type of aged SEs are quite tailor-made depending on their different circumstances and personal stories. On the other side, considering the known needs and requirements of the SEs, the ESCs configure themselves in a number of facets, e.g. resource configuration, network configuration, training configuration and structural configuration. The ESCs have similar configuration themes, and depending on their personal circumstances and priorities they differently configure themselves based on the needs and requirements of the SEs. ESCs also adapt to the SEs in various means considering the situation of the respective SEs. Most of the ESCs have agreed upon the need to provide tailor-made services for the SEs showcasing their adaptation nature toward the SEs. Followed by the analysis, the synthesis recollects the emerged patterns together and incorporates into a theoretical model from the standpoint of entrepreneurship support. Finally, section five discusses the key findings of the research delineating the limitations of the research and implications for BiD Network and the theory. Based on the limitations, the results would be more convincing if other demographic variables including gender and geography comprising direct rural and peripheral zones were added to the research together with multiple and multifaceted data collection methods in addition to interviews. Particularly considering the added contribution of the theoretical model, it can be implied that the needs and requirements of the SEs are fulfilled when the resources of ESCs are up-scaled accordingly - which can be propositioned in future researches. For BiD Network, this model is useful in terms of understanding of the wants of the different groups, how the wants are to be met by the prospective services and the consequences of the desired resources. To conclude, considering the current scenario of the entrepreneurship support centres (ESCs) and startup entrepreneurs (SEs), requirements are prominent with the SEs and in line with this, ample resources are lacking with ESCs. The support system which could help the ESCs become up-scaled and fortified in terms of growing demands and necessary resources, is going to be instrumental for the effective entrepreneurship support configurations of the ESCs.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Support, Start-up Entrepreneurs, Typology

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